RST Software
Editorial Team
Ross Krawczyk
Reviewed by a tech expert

Should you start preparing for self-driving trucks to transform logistics?

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The autonomous vehicle movement, if we can call it that, has seen its ups and downs. From being somewhat of a sci-fi staple, giving us a promise of freeing up our hands to do other things, to finally making some actual strides in recent years, with innovation giants like Tesla, Uber and Waymo investing into research, to eventually seemingly taking a back seat, as no major progress has been made to bring us close to seeing autonomous cars adapted on any significant scale. Has the hype for self-driving trucks and other vehicles petered out, or perhaps we’ve just hit a valley, a peak is ahead of us, and you should actually prepare for a major transformation?

Before we proceed, it’s worth pointing out that the definition of autonomous driving isn’t as clear-cut as one may think. In fact, the Society of Automotive Engineers standardizes 6 levels of driving automation to regulate all sorts of claims car manufacturers make. There are systems in the market that fit into some of the lower tiers but in actuality we’re still pretty removed from what most people would have in mind when thinking of self-driving vehicles.

Source: SAE International

Now, since it’s often the case that before new tech becomes widely available to the public it is being tried first in specific sectors, I think it’s safe to assume we’ll see truly self-driving trucks used in logistics in advance of such technology being rolled out to the public.

That being said, autonomous trucking will be the focus of this post, as it will eventually arrive in some form or another, so you might as well jump on the wagon early.

What is autonomous trucking?

Autonomous trucking is a term applied to commercial, driverless tractor trailers moving freight from one point to another. This type of automation enables trucks to navigate roads and traffic on their own, without having to rely on a human driver.

The grand goal is to one day expand the technology to all sorts of transport trucks and get them going without human involvement. Perfecting the tech behind it aims to address a number of operational challenges the transportation industry is facing, while also increasing safety by eliminating room for human error.

Albeit self driving semi trucks haven’t seen much mileage yet, they do indeed operate to a degree in some parts of the United States, often still with a driver to take over in case things go awry, however, major players in the transportation industry are investing in this technology which is expected to become more widely adopted in the years to come.

How do self-driving trucks work?

Alright, so if there’s no, or for now little human input into the process of starting, moving, and directing the vehicle, how do autonomous trucks work? How do they manage to stay on course and maneuver?

Well, the technology powering autonomous trucks is a combination of sensors like LiDAR (using light to determine distance), radar, and cameras. The collected data is fed into an onboard computer utilizing digital maps and advanced algorithms to process it and provide the vehicle with a 360-degree view of its surroundings.

When you really think about it, it's not that different from how an actual driver gets their sensory stimuli to make decisions in real-time.

Key elements of self-driving trucks technology

Now that we’ve covered the basics of how driverless vehicles are able to operate, let’s take a closer look at the crucial systems making it all possible.

At the base of autonomous trucking technology are various sensors which are the vehicle’s ears and eyes. They collect data related to surroundings which then constitutes the basis for making real-time decisions as to how to move.

Next up, you have artificial intelligence (AI). Machine learning algorithms are employed to analyze data coming in from sensors and cameras to recognize objects and make decisions on the go. The more data the system collects (think of it as driving experience), the better it becomes at identifying potential hazards and predicting outcomes.

Another key component allowing self-driving trucks to operate are maps and navigation systems. A driverless vehicle will rely on high-precision mapping to figure out its exact location and devise the most efficient route to its destination point. The navigation system’s job will be to help the trucks avoid obstacles and safely maneuver through complex road networks.

Since a lot of digital data back and forth is involved, autonomous trucks need a robust and reliable network connection to operate effectively. This is their version of truckers’ CB radio, the channel where they receive and give real-time updates on road and weather conditions, traffic patterns, and potential hazards. It also enables them to communicate with other vehicles, infrastructure, and fleet management systems.

In an attempt to make it safer, autonomous trucking technology also involves redundant systems. For example, a vehicle may have multiple sensors and cameras that provide overlapping coverage, so if one system fails, there is another to take over. Additionally, these autonomous trucks can communicate with each other as well as the traffic management systems to avoid accidents and reduce congestion.

Finally, there’s also the issue of having proper cybersecurity measures in place, as technology that’s online is vulnerable to attacks and takeovers.

Benefits of self-driving trucks

There’s a lot of buzz around autonomous semis and such just because of how captivating the idea of a vehicle without a driver is, but what exactly are the benefits of this?

Helps combat driver shortage

Should an insufficient number of drivers be available, autonomous trucks can supplement the workforce and help fill in the gaps.

Reduced costs

Cutting obvious labor costs and fuel expenses thanks to route optimization.

Lower carbon emissions

Autonomous trucks can be programmed to drive in a more eco-friendly manner, reducing carbon emissions which benefits the environment.

Improved safety

Reduced number of accidents caused by human error, making roads safer for everyone.

Drawbacks and challenges the self-driving trucks industry faces

Autonomous vehicles are an extremely appealing idea generating many likely benefits but considering the stage of development it’s currently at, there’s still a comparable number of issues to be solved before its potential can be truly unlocked.

Challenge #1: Off-highway driving

One significant obstacle is operating outside of highways. Autonomous trucks must navigate around origin and destination points, which can be challenging, especially in densely populated areas. Another issue is the unpredictable nature of road conditions, such as weather, accidents, and other unforeseen events. Although autonomous trucks can perform well under perfect conditions, they may require a safety driver to take control in more complicated situations.

Challenge #2: Connectivity

Varying internet accessibility is another challenge. Autonomous trucks rely on a stable connection to maintain comms with other vehicles and central hubs. On that note, cybersecurity is also a significant concern as hacker attacks can compromise the vehicle's systems and put the driver (if still present) and other road users at risk.

Challenge #3: Laws and regulations

Despite the strides made I discuss in the next section, legislation is still hampering the industry to a degree. Many cities have different traffic laws and regulations that autonomous trucks must comply with before getting a green light.

Challenge #4: General public acceptance

Finally, popular perception is another obstacle, as many people are still skeptical about the safety of self-driving vehicles. As a result, it may take some time for the wider public to become comfortable with the idea of sharing the road with autonomous trucks.

When will self-driving trucks take over?

Well, autonomous trucks have arrived, but not to an extent that perhaps some people in the transportation industry would like them to.

Long-haul autonomous trucking was originally expected to be the first sector that sees automation adopted on a large scale. This has proved to be a bit more problematic than originally thought but all it means, in fact, is that there’s going to be a delay, rather than abandonment of the idea of driverless big rigs.

The main goal for autonomous trucking companies for the next couple of years is to overcome regulations and some other obstacles curbing their expansion.

As of writing, 29 states in the US have passed legislation related to autonomous vehicles. The problem with them is the inconsistency. This renders some of them friendlier for pilot routes and testing, while others make it more difficult for AV companies to gain traction.

All in all, decently advanced self-driving technology is already here and will surely get better. Now it’s a matter of advocacy and education on the part of organizations operating in the niche who are sitting down with policymakers and hammering out regulations that don’t unnecessarily curb the development of autonomous trucking.

How will self-driving truck technology transform the logistics industry?

Changes currently taking place in the logistics industry are driven by digitization and other technological developments which are expected to significantly lower the cost of land transportation. Despite the spotlight being on passenger cars, it’s the self-driving trucks that will actually bring about more change in global logistics.

There are three major areas in the industry that will be most affected by autonomous trucking technology.

Issue #1: Driver shortages

The truck driver shortage is a significant challenge in the global supply chain, particularly in meeting the growing demand fueled by the rise of e-commerce. According to this report, in the US alone, the shortage reached a record high of 80,000 drivers in October 2021, with projections indicating a potential shortfall of over 160,000 drivers by 2030. This issue is primarily attributed to an aging workforce and the anticipated increase in freight volume.

Issue #2: Inefficient load procurement

In addition to the driver shortage, the logistics industry faces another major hurdle of underutilization and inefficient load procurement. However, the introduction of autonomous trucks offers a solution to these challenges by enabling automated loading and unloading of containers in yards and ports. This advancement leads to improved efficiency in operations and distribution, reducing the number of trucks on the road and subsequently lowering greenhouse gas (CO2)emissions.

Issue #3: Distracted driving

Enhancing safety is another promising aspect of autonomous truck technology. The prevalence of distracted driving has contributed to a rise in accidents. Self-driving truck systems have the potential to address this issue by providing a comprehensive 360-degree view of the surroundings, processing vast amounts of information, and reacting faster than human drivers would.

How RST Software can help you adjust your logistics software and fleet management platforms for the autonomous future?

Self-driving trucks are at the forefront of an exciting and rapidly evolving trend that is poised to revolutionize the logistics industry. With advancements in technology and growing interest from major players like Amazon, autonomous logistics is no longer a distant concept but a tangible reality on the horizon.

As we navigate the transition towards widespread adoption of self-driving trucks, it's crucial for companies of all sizes to proactively prepare for this transformative shift. The time between now and the full-scale deployment of autonomous logistics presents a valuable opportunity to focus on the software aspect of your operations.

By investing in adjusting or developing your logistics software, you can ensure that your systems are optimized to seamlessly integrate with autonomous vehicles and effectively control the trucks and machinery involved. This strategic move will not only position your company for future success but also enhance operational efficiency and productivity in the present.

Take the proactive step today and reach out to us at to learn more about how our solutions can help you adapt to the autonomous future. Together, let's embrace this exciting trend and drive your business towards a future of enhanced efficiency, increased profitability, and new, exciting opportunities in autonomous logistics.

People also ask

How trucking companies would be affected by autonomous cars?

According to McKinsey's analysis, the potential cost savings for the US for-hire trucking industry through the adoption of full autonomy are substantial. They estimate that operating costs could decrease by about 45%, resulting in savings ranging from $85 billion to $125 billion. This significant reduction in costs can be attributed to various factors, such as the elimination of labor expenses associated with human drivers and increased operational efficiency.

However, it is important to note that the initial implementation of autonomous trucks would require considerable capital expenditures. Trucking companies would need to invest in acquiring and integrating the autonomous technology into their fleet, which could have a notable impact on their balance sheets. While there may be an upfront financial burden, the potential long-term cost savings and operational benefits provided by autonomous trucks could outweigh the initial investment.

Deloitte's estimation further supports the potential cost advantages of autonomous trucking. They suggest that per-mile costs could be reduced by 30% or even more. This reduction in costs can be attributed to factors such as improved fuel efficiency, optimized routing, reduced idle time, and minimized maintenance expenses associated with autonomous vehicles.

How do self-driving trucks refuel?

Traditionally, conventional trucks refuel at standard fueling stations, and self-driving trucks can continue to follow this approach. They can utilize existing infrastructure, pulling up to a fuel pump and refilling their tanks just like any other vehicle. This method is convenient and relies on the well-established fueling network already in place.

However, the advent of self-driving technology has opened up new possibilities for refueling. Robotic fueling systems are being developed, where a robotic arm equipped with sensors and actuators can autonomously connect the fuel nozzle to the truck's tank. This eliminates the need for human intervention, streamlining the refueling process and potentially increasing efficiency.

Moreover, dedicated automated fueling stations are being designed to cater specifically to self-driving trucks. These stations incorporate advanced technologies such as computer vision and machine learning to identify and guide autonomous trucks to the correct refueling positions. This specialized infrastructure aims to optimize the refueling experience for self-driving trucks, ensuring seamless operations and minimizing any potential disruptions.

Who is developing self-driving trucks?

Several companies are actively involved in the development of self-driving trucks. Some notable players in this field include:

  1. Waymo: Waymo, a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. (Google's parent company), has been a pioneer in autonomous vehicle technology. They have expanded their focus to include the development of self-driving trucks and are conducting tests and trials in select regions.
  2. Tesla: Tesla, known for its electric vehicles, has also ventured into the realm of autonomous trucks. Their “Tesla Semi” is an electric truck equipped with advanced self-driving capabilities, aiming to revolutionize the long-haul trucking industry.
  3. Uber Freight: Uber, known for its ride-hailing services, has a dedicated division called Uber Freight, which is exploring self-driving truck technology. They have been working on autonomous trucking initiatives and have conducted tests in collaboration with other companies.
  4. Daimler AG: Daimler, the parent company of Mercedes-Benz, is actively developing self-driving truck technology. Their division called Daimler Trucks is working on various automation features and has showcased prototype autonomous trucks.
  5. TuSimple: TuSimple is a self-driving truck technology company that focuses specifically on autonomous trucking solutions. They have developed an advanced perception system and are conducting autonomous freight operations in partnership with logistics companies.
  6. Embark Trucks: Embark Trucks is another prominent player in the self-driving truck industry. They have developed technology that enables trucks to drive autonomously on highways, with a human driver taking over for more complex urban and local routes.
  7. is a company specializing in self-driving truck technology. They have developed an automated driving system that integrates with existing trucks and have successfully conducted cross-country autonomous trips.

These are just a few examples of the companies actively involved in the development of self-driving trucks. The field is dynamic, with many other startups, technology companies, and traditional automotive manufacturers also investing in autonomous trucking technology and conducting research and development activities.

How many self-driving trucks are on the road?

Unfortunately, it's rather difficult to even estimate the exact number of self-driving trucks on the road, as most companies are still doing intensive R&D and don't disclose the details. According to a report by the New York Times, Kodiak Robotics, a self-driving trucking start-up, completed a 6,300-mile round trip journey with its autonomous truck in September 2022. While TuSimple’s fleet of 40 autonomous trucks has been hauling goods between freight depots in Phoenix, Tucson, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio.

What are the top autonomous vehicle startups (2023)?

  1. Euler Motors – Indian electric vehicle technology startup that is focused on commercial vehicles. The company has developed a range of electric vehicles for commercial use, including electric three-wheelers and light commercial vehicles.
  2. Motional – behind the world’s first robotaxi pilot program. The company is a joint venture between Hyundai Motor Group and Aptiv, and is focused on developing autonomous driving technology for ride-hailing services.
  3. May Mobility – provides autonomous shuttle services. The company has developed a fleet of autonomous shuttles that are used for short-distance transportation in urban areas.
  4. Aurora Innovation – develops self-driving technology for cars and trucks. The company is focused on developing Level 4 autonomous driving technology, which allows vehicles to operate without human intervention in certain conditions.
  5. Nuro – builds autonomous delivery vehicles. The company has developed a range of autonomous delivery vehicles that are used for last-mile delivery of goods.
  6. – develops autonomous driving technology for passenger cars and trucks. The company is focused on developing Level 4 autonomous driving technology, which allows vehicles to operate without human intervention in certain conditions.
  7. TuSimple – develops self-driving technology for long-haul trucks. The company has developed a range of self-driving trucks that are used for long-distance transportation of goods.
  8. Waymo – develops self-driving technology for cars and trucks. The company is focused on developing Level 4 autonomous driving technology, which allows vehicles to operate without human intervention in certain conditions.
  9. Cruise Automation – develops self-driving technology for cars and trucks. The company is focused on developing Level 4 autonomous driving technology, which allows vehicles to operate without human intervention in certain conditions.
  10. AutoX – building an autonomous transportation system for moving people and goods across the most challenging roads in China.
  11. Einride – Swedish company that develops electric and autonomous vehicles for freight transport.
  12. Sibros Technologies – provides a platform for connected vehicle data management.
  13. Momenta AI – develops autonomous driving software for passenger cars and trucks.
  14. Kodiak Robotics – develops self-driving technology for long-haul trucks.
  15. RoboSense – provides LiDAR sensors for autonomous vehicles.
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